INDUSTRI JASA PELAYARAN (SHIPPING INDUSTRI)

INDUSTRI JASA PELAYARAN (SHIPPING INDUSTRI)

Industri jasa pelayaran merupakan usaha industri jasa transportasi laut ataushipping industri yang memberikan manfaat yang sangat besar bagi perpindahan suatu barang, baik memberikan manfaat secara place utility yaitu barang yang disatu tempat kurang bermanfaat dipindahkan ke tempat yang manfaatnya lebih besar, maupun memberikan manfaat time utility yaitu barang dari satu tempat yang saat tertentu sudah diproduksi dan berlebihan dipindahkan ketempat yang pada waktu yang sama belum diproduksi. Jenis-jenis jasa pelayaran yang saat ini berlaku terbagi atas:

Berdasarkan Bidang Kegiatannya

Dilihat dari bidang kegiatannya, bidang kegiatan pelayaran terbagi atas 2 (dua) jenis, yaitu Pelayaran Niaga (shipping business, commercial shipping, merchant marine) dan pelayaran non niaga. Pelayaran niaga yaitu usaha pengangkutan barang (khususnya barang dagangan) atau penumpang, melalui laut, baik yang dilakukan antar pelabuhan-pelabuhan dalam wilayan sendiri maupun antar negara. Sedangkan Pelayaran Non Niaga adalah kegiatan pelayaran yang bertujuan bukan untuk kegiatan perdagangan, yang meliputi pelayaran angkatan perang, dinas pos, dinas perambuan, penjaga pantai, hidrografi dan sebagainya.

Berdasarkan Trayek yang Dilayari

Sedangkan kegiatan pelayaran dilihat dari trayek yang dilayari terbagi atas kegiatan pelayaran nasional dan kegiatan pelayaran internasional. Dalam kegiatan pelayaran nasional, kegiatan pelayaran berlangsung dalam batas-batas wilayah teritorial suatu negara atau sering disebut pelayaran interinsulair. Sementara itu, dalam pelayaran internasional kegiatan pelayaran itu berlangsung dalam perairan internasional yang menghubungkan dua negara atau lebih, pelayaran internasional dalam dunia shipping dikenal dengan sebutan Pelayaran Samudera atau Ocean Going shipping atau Intern Ocean Shipping. Pada pelayaran internasional timbul masalah hubungan hukum internasional dan timbullah berbagai konvensi internasional yang mengatur aspek-aspek pelayaran, baik yang berkaitan dengan masalah teknis, hukum positif, maupun yang berkenaan dengan penyelenggaraan atau pengusahaan pelayaran.

Bagi Indonesia perusahaan pelayaran nasional mempunyai prospek yang sangat cerah mengingat volume ekspor dan impor meningkat terus setiap tahun. Sementara itu, jumlah muatan ekspor dan impor yang dapat diangkut kapal-kapal samudera nasional saat ini hanya 5,05 % dan 94,95% muatan masih diangkut oleh kapal-kapal asing.

 


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